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Technical & Fundamental Analysis

The framework through which traders evaluate price movement is known as technical analysis. According to the notion, a person can use previous price movements to forecast present trading circumstances and probable price movement. This is normally accompanied with the drawing of support and resistance levels as well as trend lines as shown in the example above. 

The primary reason for utilising technical analysis is that all current market information is, in theory, represented in the price. 

Most technical traders believe that “it’s all in the charts!” This indicates that the current market price incorporates all available essential information. If the price represents all available information, then price action is required to make a transaction.

Have you ever heard the expression “history tends to repeat itself”? It is, after all, the essence of technical analysis! Technical analysis examines the price action’s rhythm, flow, and trends. If a given price has historically served as a big support or resistance level, traders will look out for it and base their trades on that historical price level.

Technical analysis is the study of previous price activity to detect patterns and predict future price movements. Technical analysts seek similar patterns that have occurred in the past and generate trade ideas based on the belief that price would respond the same way it did previously. Technical analysis traders use charts because they are the simplest way to display past data! Technical analysts are commonly called chartists since they live, eat, and breathe charts. According to chartists, price activity is the most dependable predictor of future price movement.

They use historical data to identify trends and patterns that may lead to profitable trading. The more forex traders that hunt for specific price levels and chart patterns, the more probable these patterns will appear in the markets. Furthermore, with so many traders relying on technical analysis, these price patterns and indicator signals tend to become self-fulfilling.

Technical indicators are the squiggly lines found above, below, and on top of the price information on a chart used by forex traders who follow technical analysis. Nevertheless, technical analysis is also entirely subjective since even if two individuals look at the same chart setup or indications, they would have different notions of where the price is heading.

A technical indicator provides a unique view of the intensity and direction of the underlying price movement. Technical analysts utilise indicators to forecast future price changes by analysing previous data.

A technical indicator can do three tasks:

  1. Notify traders when a specified condition is reached.
  2. Predict the price movement.
  3. Validate the analysis offered by the current price movement or another technical indicator.

Technical indicators are classified into two types:

  1. Leading indicators provide trading signs that a trend is about to begin.
  2. Lagging indicators follow price activity.

Leading indicators attempt to forecast price change by employing a shorter time in their computation. MACD, RSI, and Stochastic are the most often used leading indicators. Typically, these indicators determine how “overbought” or “oversold” an item is. When something is “oversold,” the presumption is that it will recover.

Lagging indications provide a hint after a trend or reversal has begun. The Moving Average is the most commonly used lagging indicator.

They do not warn you of impending price changes; instead, they merely inform you of what prices are doing so that you may trade accordingly.

Lagging indications require you to buy and sell late, but in exchange for missing out on early chances, they significantly lower your risk by ensuring you are on the right side of the market. The basic rule is to employ trailing indicators in trending markets and leading indicators in sideways situations.

Technical indicators are classified into two types:

Overlays are technical indicators plotted on top of the prices on a chart and utilise the same scale as the prices. Moving averages and Bollinger Bands are two examples.

Oscillators are technical indicators placed above or below a price chart and fluctuate between a local minimum and maximum. MACD, RSI, and Stochastic are a few examples.

There are four types of technical indicators:

  1. Trend-Following – Assist traders in trading currency pairings that are moving up or down. These indications can help us determine the trend’s direction and whether or not a trend exists. Trend-following indicators use price averaging to determine the direction and strength of a trend. A bullish trend is defined as a price moving above the Average. When the price falls below the Average, it indicates a negative trend. 


  1. Momentum – Momentum indicators aid in determining the pace of market fluctuations by comparing prices across time. It is also capable of analysing volume. It is derived by comparing current and past closing prices. This is often shown as a line underneath a price chart oscillating when momentum shifts. When a price and a momentum indicator diverge, it might indicate a shift in future price direction.


  1. Volatility – Volatility indicators assess the pace at which prices change in either direction, providing essential information about the types of buying and selling that occur in a specific market and assisting traders in determining when to shift direction. This is usually based on the highest and lowest historical prices.


  1. Volume – Volume indicators use some volume averaging (or smoothing) to determine the strength of a trend or validate a trading direction. The most significant trends frequently emerge as volume grows.             


To reduce false signals, when the price movement differs from what the indicator predicted, a technical indicator is sometimes paired with other “tests” or indications to boost its reliability, known as waiting for “confirmation” of the signal generated by the technical indicator.

“Filters” are the extra tests. The most prevalent filters fall under the following categories:

  •  Time: The signal must be present for a certain period of time. A 50-day moving average, for example, must be higher than a 200-day moving average for at least three trading days. 
  • Magnitude: the signal must be within a specific range. An oscillator, for example, must be more than 80% or less than 20%.
  • Volume: Indicators based on a bigger volume are typically more significant.
  • If you are a day trader, you will want indicators that generate many trading signals in a single day. A swing trader prefers fewer indications.
  • Technical analysis typically reveals if a trend reversal is genuine or fabricated after the event. That’s why looking at charts with multiple time frames is recommended to add context to your views.

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What is Fundamental Analysis? 

Fundamental analysis assesses the forex market by examining the economic, social, and political elements that influence currency pricing. It is simple to use supply and demand to predict where prices may go. The problematic aspect is examining all the variables affecting supply and demand.

It will help if you comprehend why and how certain occurrences, such as an increase in the unemployment rate, impact a country’s economy and monetary policy, affecting the degree of demand for its currency. 

This research assumes that if a country’s present or future economic outlook is favourable, its currency should strengthen.

To apply fundamental analysis, you must first grasp how economic, financial, and political news affects currency exchange rates. 

When the economy is growing, most businesses are significantly more likely to grow than when contracting. When businesses and the general public believe the economy is booming, they are far more willing to spend money. This expenditure generates additional demand for both new and existing items and services. Businesses will respond by increasing output to accommodate the increased demand, which may involve hiring extra staff and producing more inventory, which can help to extend a growth cycle.


When there is uncertainty about the economy’s future trajectory, firms and individuals will be more cautious about spending money, preferring to “play it safe” until a clearer picture develops. Businesses frequently discover that they have overstated their production requirements and must drastically reduce output as the economy slows, leading to increased unemployment and decreased output.


GDP and Economic Growth 


GDP stands for “Gross Domestic Product,” It reflects the entire worth of products produced and services delivered in a country over a year.


While raw GDP is published, which reflects the currency worth of all a country’s products and services, the annualised rate of change is more important. While the economy might potentially become “overheated” and suffer unsustainable growth, setting the scene for the next economic collapse, in most circumstances, the greater the yearly rate of change, the better.


Investors often see a positive increase in the range of 2% to 4% as good since it demonstrates considerable growth without being unsustainable. The main line is that persistent — and sustainable — GDP growth implies a favourable business climate, whereas a negative and/or falling trend in GDP might signify an unfavourable business environment.


Interest Rates  


Low or dropping interest rates are often considered a favourable trend for business. Reduced interest rates enable companies to borrow money cheaply to grow their operations and/or refinance their current loans at cheaper rates, resulting in lower interest payments and more money to spend on company operations.

High and/or abruptly rising interest rates often lead to less borrowing by enterprises, resulting in less operational expansion. Similarly, any firm that relies on a customer’s capacity to borrow money to boost sales (such as vehicles and real estate) can be influenced positively or negatively by changes in interest rates.

Inflation and Deflation

The tendency of the price of goods and services to grow over time is known as inflation. A small amount of inflation is expected. A low degree of inflation can be beneficial to the economy. Lower interest rates and a projected decline in purchasing power incentivise firms and people to spend money now rather than preserve it. The two threats here are high and/or rising inflation and the inverse of inflation, known as “deflation.

Inflation rapidly growing and/or high results in significant price rises for products and services. While increasing salaries can somewhat counteract this, pay gains tend to trail price rises. As a result, while costs rise, individuals and companies restrict their purchases because they do not have the money to buy all they can when prices are lower. In a word, inflation decreases purchasing power. As a result, extremely high inflation rates can have a detrimental influence on economic growth.

If deflation persists for an extended period, it can have an even more severe economic impact than excessive inflation. It is a paradox to many people, who naturally desire lower pricing to acquire more products and services for the same amount. But, if left uncontrolled, deflation can lead to a negative economic spiral.

Companies receive less and less for their products as deflation continues, so they begin to create less. This drop in output may induce enterprises to reduce their employment, resulting in fewer individuals having the money to consume goods and services; this can result in another round of output cuts until the process becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy and the economy implodes.

Corporate Earnings ( Actual and Forecast) 

The amount of company profits in a country may be tracked and provides a clear picture of overall economic profitability. The one possible issue with declared earnings is that the data is published after the event and tends to lag behind stock market movements since the stock market discounts future earnings patterns. Hence, by the time actual reported profits hit a peak or a valley, the stock market has likely already moved on to forecasting the subsequent large rise in earnings.

As a result, many traders pay close attention to projected earnings estimates. The disadvantage of studying this data is that analysts’ earnings forecasts occasionally must be corrected. Consequently, there may be occasions when most analysts project substantial earnings growth over the following year or quarter, but the expected increase has yet to materialise. Yet, a fundamental analyst likes to consider excellent profit estimates as a positive indicator for the stock market in the future.

Non-Farm Payrolls 

The NFP is a monthly report that estimates the net employment gained in the United States in the preceding month, excluding farm jobs, private homes, and non-profit organisations, provided on the first Friday of each month as part of the Employment Situation report, which also contains the US unemployment rate, average hourly wages, and participation rate.

Although its significance has waned recently, the NFP remains one of the most important economic indicators. If job growth remains robust, the Fed may consider hiking interest rates. If it is weak, lower interest rates may be on the way.

Since the United States has the world’s largest economy, each Fed decision considerably influences worldwide financial markets. Yet, they will significantly impact the USD; therefore, forex traders will constantly follow the NFP and hurry to adjust their tactics depending on the data or seek to profit from the volatility. The data is typically issued on the first Friday of each month at 8:30 a.m. EST, representing the previous month’s statistics.

An extremely optimistic projection ahead of an NFP release can have the same effect as NFP data that significantly beat expectations. If the Fed decides to decrease interest rates to battle high unemployment, demand for the dollar falls, leading to a price decline. In contrast, a large number of new employment (usually anything in the six figures, but significantly 200,000 or more) is likely to be a favourable element in propelling Dollar increases.

Analysing macroeconomic conditions alone do not advise a trader on what or when to buy or sell. Nonetheless, even an essential examination of macroeconomic trends affecting the business climate can assist a trader in determining if the present environment is favourable. 

Link to economic calendar

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